Soybean and pulses are some of the most economically important field crops grown in Canada and world-wide but unfortunately, losses caused by both endemic and emerging nematode pests continues to be a major limitation towards sustainable production and producer profitability. New emerging soybean and pulse nematodes are potential invasive threats as they migrate to other geographical areas of Canada and elsewhere. Heterodera glycines or soybean cyst nematode (SCN), remains the most important yield-limiting disease in soybeans. Unfortunately, yield loss is likely to increase in the future as SCN spreads to new soybean production areas in the Prairies as well as new aggressive SCN populations (HG-Types) develop in Ontario and Quebec which can feed and reproduce on the available sources of resistance to SCN. Currently surveys have not shown SCN to be in Manitoba but establishment of SCN will unfortunately follow with the expansion of soybean acreage into the Prairie Provinces. Its presence across the US border implies it soon will be established. Recent market access issues and its resolution for pulse exports due to the stem nematode, Ditylenchus, have also highlighted the importance of surveillance and identification programs in Canada. Emerging issues include the root lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans in Ontario and Quebec, P. alleni in Quebec and P. neglectus in Prairie Canada. In summary, early detection, awareness and implementation of appropriate control measures of these endemic and emerging diseases is critical to sustainable soybean and pulse production in Canada.